Classic computers use binary values (0/1) to work. On the contrary, our brain cells can use many more values for operation, which makes us more energy efficient than computers. This is why scientists are interested in this amazing and complicated neuromorphic (brain-like) computing. Physicists at the University of Groningen (Netherlands) used a complex oxide to develop elements that are comparable to neurons and synapses in the brain using spins a magnetic property of electrons. As we know computers can perform simple calculations much faster than humans, our brains outperform silicon machines in tasks like object recognition. In addition, our brain uses less energy than computers. Part of this can be explained by how our brains practice, show and perform multiple functions As said that a computer uses a binary system (with values 0 or 1), brain cells have the ability to provide more analog signals with a range of values. How our brains work can be simulated in computers, but the basic architecture is still based on a binary system. So, scientists are looking for ways to extend this and develop a kind of hardware that is more like the brain, but also interacts with normal computers.
One idea is to maintain the magnetic bits that can have the middle states, says Tamalika Banerjee, professor of spin tronics of functional materials at the Zernike Institute for Advanced Materials at the University of Groningen, who is working on spintronics, which uses a magnetic property of electrons, referred to as spiders to transport, manipulate and store information. In this study, his PhD student Anouk Goossens, first author of the work, created thin films from a ferromagnetic metal, named, strontium ruthenate oxide, SRO that was grown on a strontium titanium oxide substrate. The resulting thin film contained magnetic domains that were perpendicular to the level of the film. These can be changed more effectively than magnetic domains in the plane as explained by Goossens. By adapting the growth conditions, it is possible to control the orientation of the crystal in the ORS. Magnetic domains have been created using other techniques, but typically require complex layered structures.
The magnetic domains can be changed using a current through a platinum electrode on top of the SRO. If the magnetic domains are perfectly aligned perpendicular to the film, this change is deterministic in such a way that the entire domain will change. However, if the magnetic domains are slightly tilted, the answer is likely as not all domains are the same, and intermediate values will occur if only part of the crystals in the domain have changed.